Category Archives: Book Review

Umayyad Power Struggle and Shia Sunni Divide

Read Part 1 Here

Quraish Logo

Download Urdu Extract Here

Abu Suffian (RA) Family & Syria:

Abu Suffian RA family remained in power in Syria from 18 Hijrah (year 638) onward. This area became the power source for them. This is where the era of Ummayad Khilafat originated in 41 Hijrah (661).

We need to keep in mind that there are many people in Umayyad who were named Muawiah & Yazeed. Abu Suffian had two sons called Muawiah (RA) & Yazeed (RA). Then Muawiah (RA) had a son called Yazeed. He was the one involved in the incident of Karbalah where Imam Hussain RA was martyred (underlined & marked with Red arrow in the chart below).

Initial Khaleefahs & No Relatives Policy:

Abu Bakar (RA) was from Bani Taiyam and Umar (RA) was from Bani Adi; so first two khaleefs were neither Hashimi nor Umayyad. Then Usman (RA) from Bani Ummayyiah came into power. Neither Muhammad (SAW) nor any of the first two khaleefs appointed anyone from their family.

But Usman RA reversed this policy and appointed a lot of his close relatives at high positions in his Government. This is when the Ummayiah- Hashimi rivalry started surfacing again.

Umayyad in Power under Usman (RA)

Usman (RA) sincerely believed that He is appointing a suitable person for the job and that Allah Ta’ala has commanded Muslims to be kind to their close relatives.

As Usman RA appointed many people from Umayyad, they became very strong during his era. There were good Umayyad people appointed who served the state in great ways but there were some doubtful appointments such as:

Waleed bin Uqaba: Usman’s (RA) Step Brother. He was appointed an Ammal (Tax collector) by Prophet (SAW). But he lied to prophet when sent to Bani Mustaliq’s and hence was  removed from his appointment. Usman RA appointed him as Governor of Kufa replacing Saad bin Waqas (RA) (Ashra-e-Mubashra). Waleed prayed 4 Rakah in Fajar under the influence of alcohol. He was then removed & punished by Usman RA.

Abdullah bin Saad bin Sarh: Usman’s (RA) Razai Brother (suckled milk from same woman). He was one of the worst enemies of Islam. At Fatah Makkah Prophet (SAW) ordered to kill him (& 7 others) even if they hold Ka’aba’s Cover (Ghulaaf). But he was saved by Usman (RA). He accepted Islam, then Rejected, & then accepted again.

Usman appointed him as Governor of Egypt.

Marwan bin Hakam: Hakam was uncle of Usman (RA). He was exiled by Prophet SAW from Madina due to anti state activities. He & his son Marwan remained in exile till the time of Usman (RA). Abu Bakar & Umar RA did not allow them to return. But Usman RA brought them back to Madina. As stated by Usman RA, he took permission from Rasul Allah (SAW).

Marwan was appointed as State Secretary by Usman (RA). He held the official seal of the Khalifah but he abused his powers many times. It was one such incident which eventually led to the death of Usman RA. Marwan was the killer of Abu Talha RA (Ashra Mubashra sahabi) during the battle of Jammal. He also confiscated the Oasis of Fadak (Khyber) which was kept by Rasul Allah (SAW) for his family.

Ameer Muawwiah RA: Usman RA extended Ameer Muawiah’s RA rule to the whole Syria including Jordan & Palestine. He remained as Governor here for about 23 years. A long tenure at one place turned out to be lethal and led to worst power struggle Muslims ever saw plus the killing of thousands of Muslims including Imam Husaain (RA).

Hashimi & Umayyad Family Tree
Hashimi & Umayyad Family Tree

 

Bani Ummayyad vs Ahl-e-Bait (Family of Rasul Allah SAW)

After the death of Usman RA, Ali RA was appointed as 4th Khalifah. He was from Bani Hashim. Ameer Muawiah RA, the governor of Syria at the time, refused to give his allegiance to Ali RA. As a result a sad battle of Saffain was fought between them and thousands of Muslims lost their lives. Ali’s RA whole tenure of Khilafat was wasted due to fighting among Muslims. People were so deprived of peace.

Ali (RA) shifted Dar Al-khilafah, the Capital of Government from Madina to Kufa so that people of Madina could get some peace from power struggles and focus more on knowledge.

After the sad death of Ali RA, Hazrat Hassan RA was appointed as Khaleefa. But Ameer Muawwiah RA continued his efforts to become the ruler of all the Muslims so the internal fights continued. Imam Hassan RA was very kind hearted; he did not like to further the spillage of ordinary Muslims blood. Hassan RA stepped down and Amir Muawwiah became the Khaleefa of all Muslims world of the time.

This act was disliked by the Banu Hashim and the Rivalry turned into “Umayyad vs Ahl-e-Bait” (Family of Prophet SAW). A large group of supporters of Ahl-e-Bait emerged called Shia (discussed below).

Era of Umayyad Khilafat (661 – 749):

Ameer Muawiah RA taking Khalifah’s office was the foundation of Umayyad Khilafat. He RA apparently took good care of the Ahl-e-Bait.

Muawwiah RA nominated his son Yazeed as khaleefah after his death. This was the first & worst example of Monarchy (Malookiat, Inherited Family based Government). People generally rejected it but some people accepted it out of fear because Umayyad had power in their hands. Some accepted it just to keep unity. But people with high morals from Quraish and especially Ahl-e-Bait opposed it.

At the forefront of opposition were Imam Hussain & Abdullah bin Zubair bin Awam RA. Imam Hussain RA was martyred along other Ahl-e-Bait at Karbala.

Muttalib Family

Yazeed died after few years and his appointed son Muawiah (son of Yazeed) stepped down within few days of taking the power. And this brought an end to ruling in Amir Muawiah RA family. Khalafat continued in Bani Umayyad though till 749. It was then taken over by the Bani Abbas (decedents of Abbas RA, uncle of Rasul Allah SAW).

The 92 years of monarchy based Umayyad era was full of oppression & killings among Muslims. Although they mainly focused on gaining & maintaining power and Islam was not their main agenda, yet they largely implemented Islam as a system to look after the collective affairs of Muslims. This is in full contrast to the present days Muslim rulers; they are not only illegal but also run our affairs with 100% non-Islamic system.

The Big Split:

It is evident the Umayyad Hashmi Rivalry created a big rift in Muslims form very early days. It later transformed into Umayyad vs Ahl-e-Bait (Family of Rasul Allah SAW). The dispute was largely around power or leadership of the nation (or, may we say Political). People were largely divided into 3 groups, plus two small opportunist Groups (4 & 5, which are not discussed here):

  1. Umayyad & their Supporters
  2. Ahl-e-Bait & their Supporters known as Shia’a
  3. Neutrals: These stayed away from fighting either out of fear or to avoid fitna (dispute)
  4. Sabaai: A group started by a munaafiq Abdulla bin Sabaa, a former Jew who had religious grudge against Muslims. They spread a lot of bad rumours, wrong beliefs, propaganda and misinformation to spoil the situation, especially among new Muslims. They are extinct now but the intellectual damage caused by them will be with us forever.
  5. Khawaraj: They took verses of Quran literally (word by word meaning) and declared most Muslims kaafir (out of Islam). They were responsible for a large number of killings. They are also extinct now.

There is a long history but in the end we are left with Shia group on one side & the rest of Muslims as Sunni on the other side. This is the biggest divide we see up to today in Muslim nation. Politicians have exploited this situation cleverly to keep this divide alive and to make both groups fight each other.

Divide upon Divided upon Divide:

The initial divide was focused on political side only; no one cared about Fiqh or Madhab. But later on this divide was turned into a Fiqhi (Madhabi, religious) Division of Shia vs Sunni Fiqh. It was (& still is) fully abused by clever politicians to keep us divided along these lines. Currently we are divided on Fiqh as well as politically (based on colour, area, race, language, etc., etc.). We have more than 50 Muslim countries and many more so called ‘nations’ which are further divided on Jaafria Fiqh & Sunni Fiqh which is then further divided into (Hanafi, Shaafai, Maaliki & Hanbali) plus Ahl-e-Hadees – endless.

Fiqhi divide is fine as long as it is based on just Islam and is not used to discriminate & fight with each other. But the political division is outright bad; we are one Ummah (nation) so we really should be under one Government. Soon Eesa (AS) will be arriving in Syria insha Allah. Which passport will he have? Will he need visa to visit Iran, Saudi or Pakistan? Think!!

shia sunny cartoon

Shia’an:

Literal meaning of Shia is a group, supporters or followers. There were a number of supporters of Ahl-e-Bait at around that time. Main groups were:

Shia’an Ali: Supporters of Ali RA. They were divided after his death as below.

Shia’an Fatimi: Supporters of Ali’s RA children from Fatima RA. After the martyr of Imam Hussain RA, Imam Zain al Abideen was the main person in his lineage. He stayed away from power struggle and focused on the knowledge.

Shia’an Alvi: Followers of Ali’s RA children from other wives. Muhammad ibin Hanfiyya (son of Ali RA but named after his mother Hanafiyah RA) became the main leader of Ahl-e-Bait after the martyr of Hussain RA.

Abu Hashim bin Muhammad Hanafia (grandson of Ali RA) handed over imamat of Ahl-e-Bait to Muhammad bin Ali, the grandson of Abbas RA (uncle of Rasul Allah SAW). Over time, Abbasi family gained enough power to overturn the Umayyad Government. Hence the Abbasi Khilafat was born which lasted for 500 years.

Later in history shia were subdivided further into sects such as Kaysaania, Zaydia, Immamia, Ismaeelia, isna Asharia (majority now) & few other groups.

System Still Islam:

Although Umayyad rulers were selected via Monarchy; they implemented Islam as a system throughout. Umayyad rulers implemented Islam mostly but broke some of its rules. BUT leaders throughout Muslim world today implement non-Islamic systems with some Islamic flavour to it.

I am sure the Muslim divisions will cease to exist and we will be one united Nation again once Islam is implemented as a Whole, as a way of Life insha Allah….

no sunny no shia

Quraish Tribe: A Profound Impact on Muslim History

Quraish Poster

Tribe Quraish & Muslims Division Today

NOTE: The below article is based on the famous books “Tareekh-e-Islam” by Moeen ud Din Nadvi and “Khilafat aur Malookiat” by Maulana Modudi. The article is intended as a historical discussion.

All Sahaba are respectable to us. However, they made errors of judgement at times because they were humans. Still we respect them as Rasool Allah (SAW) has praised them at different occasions.

Objective of discussion here is not to prove someone right or wrong rather learn. And I am learning myself so if you find anything missing or wrong, kindly guide me on it.

Read the Urdu Extract Here (Download the PDF File)

Significance of Quraish Tribe:

Tribe of Quraish has a special significance in Islam; our beloved prophet Muhammad (SAW) belongs to it. Allah Ta’ala mentions Quraish in Quran (Surah Al-Quraish) as He blessed them with favours. Muhammad (SAW) talked about their importance in different hadeeth. Understanding Quraish’s origins and its structure will help us understand the nature of initial struggle for establishing Islam. More importantly the roots of the biggest divide that Muslims have, originated from the very structure of Quraishi tribe; i.e. the Shia Sunni Divide.

Quraish Tree

Origins:

The tribe Quraish links back to our spiritual father & Prophet Ibrahim AS who moved to the place now known as Makkah and built the first house of God known as Ka’ba. The tribe’s foundation was laid by one of his decedents called Fahr whose Laqab (nick name) was Quraish. His decedents were called Quraishi. With the passage of time they subdivided into small tribes or branches as listed below:

  1. Bani Hashim, 2. Bani Ummaiyah, 3. Bani Nofil, 4. Bani Abd al Dar, 5. Bani Asad, 6. Bani Taim, 7. Bani Makhzoom, 8. Bani Adi, 9. Bani Jamha, 10. Bani Sahm

Organisation:

Quraish’s organised social life & political structure was formed by Qasi who was born in the 5th generation after Fahr. Three main areas of Administration were:

  1. Army: Organising Army, Battles, Relations with other nations. This was the responsibility of Bani Ummaiyah
  2. Courts: Decision making via Collective Council, Disputes Solving, and
  3. Religious Affairs: Looking after Ka’aba & Haaji visitors. Responsibility of Bani Hashim

Quraish’s main profession was trade. They would travel far & wide for it. Allah Ta’ala granted them two gifts as mentioned in Quran (surah Quraish) i.e. Rizq (Food) and Peace. The 3rd and biggest gift is Ka’aba, the House of the Lord. People from all over the world would come to visit it. So, Quraish had a lot of respect, prominence & power at the time.

Two Key Tribes:

Bani Hashim and Bani Ummaiyah were the strongest and most prominent tribes. These very tribes shaped the Muslim history in coming years.

  1. Bani Hashim were respected the most as they were in-charge of the Religious affairs i.e. looking after Ka’aba, Pilgrims & the related matters. Muhammad Rasul Allah (SAW) descended in this tribe
  2. Bani Ummaiyah (Umayyads) were most powerful; they were rich and bigger in number. Bani Ummaiyah were in-charge of Army.

Hashim Ummayad chart

Relations & Rivalry:

Both Hashimis and Umayyads were descendants of same grandfather Abd Munaf hence were close relatives. But there was always a sense of rivalry present among them. Because both tribes were more or less equally strong in terms of wealth & honour so matter of competition was not major. The ties were further strengthened through intermarriages…..Until Hashimis were granted the Prophet-hood.

Muhammad (SAW) becoming prophet took Hashimis to prominence; feud & power struggle grew apparent. Umayyads had nothing personal against Hashimis. They were against Hashimis as were the other Quraishi tribes. It was their Leading role that was at stake.. Being the strongest militarily & financially, Umayyads would have acted the same way against any other tribe in such a situation.

The relations between two tribes remained even after the arrival of Islam. Prophet Muhammad’s (SAW) daughters were married to Usman (RA) & Abu Al-Aas, both Umayyad, and Prophet’s wife Um-e-Habiba (RA) was the daughter of Aub Sufian (RA), the head of Quraishi Army at the time.

Unity under Islam:

Fatah Makkah (conquer of Makkah) crushed the power of Quraish. Banu Ummaiyah, like many other tribes accepted Islam. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) honoured them significantly, especially Abu Suffiyan (RA) & his family. He was granted special privileges. His son Ameer Muawiah (RA) was appointed as Katib-e-Wahi (writer of Revelations). Suitable people from Ummayiah were given leadership roles. Umayyads returned that honour with great dignity; Abu Sufian (RA) fought battles taking his whole families along. Usman (RA) spent all of his wealth in the way of Islam.

So Umayyad remained prominent even after the arrival of Islam. And the tradition continued after the passing away of Muhammad (SAW).

Conquer of Syria:

Abu Bakar (RA) sent an army to conquer Syria. Abu Sufian (RA) participated in this war with all of his family. Uazeed (Son of Abu Sufian RA) was appointed as in-charge of a small army section that went to Damascus (Damishq). Damascus was eventually conquered in Umar’s (RA) time. Umar (RA), the 2nd Khaleefa-e-Rasihda appointed Ameer Muawiah bin Abu Suffian (RA) as Ruler here.

The action of appointing Muawaiah RA in Syria laid the foundations of the biggest divide in Muslim nation and changed the course of Muslim history forever.

Read 2nd Part Here

Huae Tum Dost – Part 2

Read Part 1 Here

welcome
Welcome to Our Land

Discovery Brought Death for Natives

Christopher landed in West Indies first. He & his armies were welcomed by the native people who were named as Red Indians; Columbus thought he had arrived in India. They were very hospitable and friendly – and were unarmed. Their land was fertile!

After discovering Amreeka & knowing the poeple, Christopher started killing red Indians at an estimated average of 1.2 million per year. The local people were considered less-than-humans, so were killed as sport too. Soon Christian Church & Columbus got well established here. Ships loaded with wealth & slaves started reaching Spain.

Killing as a Hobby
Killing as a Hobby

Queen being kind at heart, decided to grant few benefits to the victimized red Indians. Under these grants, Colubus was ordered to suitably inform the victims in advance that they are going to be killed and the reason for killing was also told. Crowds would be gathered and a statement would be read to them; in Latin or Spanish whichever suitable. Not a single person among them could understand Spanish or Latin!

The long statement is summarized below:

“You are ordered to obey Saint Peter & the Church. In case of disobedience, we will fight against you in every possible way. Your belongings will be confiscated and your women & children will be enslaved & sold. You will be solely responsible for any physical & material damage that may occur during this course, not the queen or its armies.”

Nearly 500 years passed, have the killing stopped? Just ask the Mayan Indians (the original people of Mexico & Central America) Maria Novaro, writes in NY Times (1999), Guatemalan army which is involved in killing Mayans is supported by US government through money, training and protection.

Christopher had learned very well from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand on how to keep promises and regard agreements. He would make contracts with red Indians, accept all of their demands and then kill them all at a suitable time. He knew there is no contract, no promise, no agreement between powerful & weak. Only one rule applies and that is “might is right”. (Why don’t we understand this? We still believe in their promises).

.
.

Christopher was so ruthless that even queen had to take notice of the complaints against him. He was removed from powers and arrested on his way back to Spain. He was later released but his powers were taken off. Alas, irreversible damage had been done to the victims by then.

Now, tell me, Amreeka whose base is on creed and exploitation of other nations, how could it be beneficial to us?

 

Two Surrenders & Two Amir Abdullah’s

two amir
General Amir Niazi (left), Amir Abdullah (right)

Two shameful surrenders occurred in Muslims history; both were done by two Amir Abdullah’s. One, surrender of Ghernata by Amir Abdullah and second, surrender of Dhaka (now Bangladesh) by General Amir Abdullah Niazi to Indian army. Both Amir’s have striking similarities besides their name:

  1. Both had big army at the time of surrender (35000 in Spain & 90000 in East Pakistan). They could fight & resist for long time but resorted to disgraceful surrender.
  2. Both waited for external support which never arrived (General Amir was waiting support from Amreeka (as promised) but it never arrived).
  3. While Muslims lost their honor, lives & dignity, both Amirs successfully secured their personal interests (General Amir had paan business in Dhaka).
  4. Both were disgraced in public at the time of surrender. Former Abdullah wanted to surrender inside Alhamra palace but he was refused and asked to do so in public. General Abdullah was beaten with shoes on his head (closest translation of “sur par jootian”) and spate on face before surrendering in front of media. It was video recorded.
  5. They lived a long life after surrender and were never accounted for their shameful actions.

There were some dissimilarity also. Amir Abdullah from Grenada was crying with tears while surrendering; he was full of shame & sorrow. Amir Abdullah fought his father to drive him away to gain power hence wasting his efforts & power. But when the time came to fight, he surrendered.

While leaving the Grenata, he cast his last sight on Alhamra and burst into tears. Her mother turned to Amir Abdullah and advised ” Don’t Cry like a woman for what you could not defend like a man“.

 

General Niazi Surrendering in Public Ceremony
General Niazi Surrendering in Public Ceremony

The General Niazi was a shameless arrogant character; he was telling dirty jokes to Indian high command while surrendering. He never accepted responsibility.

Read Selected Urdu Text Here

Surrenders do not match Muslims psyche and whenever we surrendered, it had profound negative impact. There are lessons to be learned:

LESSONS:

  1. We must learn from history.
  2. We must not try the already tried ones.
  3. Amreeka & west will never benefit us – they have their own interests to fulfil.
  4. Their target is ourselves and our wealth.
  5. They will destroy us if we join them, and they destroy us if we oppose them. Decide which one is graceful?
  6. We cannot change our past; we can only learn from it – Let’s do so and move on.

To be continued…

 

Huae Tum Dost Jis kay, part 1- Sad History of West & Amreeka

 

Book Cover
Book Cover

Urdu Book “Huae Tum Dost Jis kay” by Dr Haq Haqqi published in 2007 is about the bloody history of west (mainly US, also of British, Spanish, Portuguese, Germans, French etc), and how they literally ruined the rest of the world, especially Muslims. If you are light hearted, don’t read; it won’t let you sleep at night.

What is the history of US anyway? As put simply by the then chairman of Islamic society of North America some 30 years ago “God-Less-Ness, Slavery and Bloodshed”. The title of the book comes from an Urdu verse from Ghalib, the most famous poet. The translated meaning would be “One who gets your freindship, needs no more enemies”.

Below is a summary extract from the book. Few Photos and Text Pages attached Here. Read these first (in Urdu) before reading the summary. In this part author looks at events leading to sad demise of Spanish Muslim Empire & discovery of Amreeka. It also explores 4 characters who influenced our history badly, Queen Isabella, Christopher Columbus, and two Abdullah. We must learn from the history as it repeats itself; unless we do something to change its course.

My heart is crying while writing this summary. The saying “history repeats itself” is very true if you look at the Muslims history. But we have failed to learn anything from our past. Dr Haq starts the book by looking at last days of Spanish moor (Muslim) empire. He explores the behavior & actions of Muslim & Christian leaders of that time. There is a striking similarity in their behavior & actions with today’s leaders. If we do nothing & history succeeds in repeating (God forbid), we are doomed.

1492 – a Sad Year

1492 is very important year in the history of all nations and very sad one for the Muslims. This was the year we lost power in Spain after 800 years of rule and this was the year Amreeka was discovered. Both events belonged to one woman, the Spanish Christian Queen Isabella. Both of these events proved to bring great disgrace and loss to humanity.

Fall of Ghernata (Grenada) Spain

In a shameful ceremony outside Alhambra palace in Ghernata, Amir Abdullah the governor of Ghernata handed over the keys to Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand in the presence of their chief religious minister Cardinal and a special guest the Christopher Columbus. Christopher writes in his diary “Today, 2nd January 1492, the flag of queen Isabella rose forcefully on the minarets of Alhamra Palace. Then I saw the moor king Abdullah kissing the hands of Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand.”

Alhambra Palace
Alhambra Palace

A contract was signed between both parties that ensured that Muslims will not be harmed and more importantly Amir Abdullah was ensured that his personal interests will be protected. Amir Abdullah was crying during the ceremony. The Christian king said the famous words to comfort him “trust our promises, we will not betray you” (don’t we hear the same slogan from today’s leaders?). These promises & agreements were forgotten as soon as the ceremony concluded. The streets of Ghernata saw drunken Christian solders running after Muslim women. Mosques were filled with filthy smells of their horses. Libraries were burnt which had a wealth of centuries old knowledge, more than 300,000 books, sending dark smoke to skies; the darkness that is still lingering upon Muslims to date.

 

Why Amreeka was Discovered

Christopher Columbus was born in Italy to a Jewish family. He developed a keen interest in sailing adventures & by the age of 21 he became a famous sailor who wanted to discover new lands to make wealth & fortune. For that Columbus needed political & financial support. He contacted many European rulers for help but was rejected. Jews who were well established & felt secure in Spain under Muslim rules envisaged their fall. They knew very well that the fall of Muslim rule would make their life miserable under Christian leaders. They wanted someone to discover new lands for them where they could live peacefully. Christopher was a perfect candidate. They supported him in his cause.

King, Queen and Chrsitopher
King, Queen and Christopher

Christopher presented his case in front of King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella. They were assured that Christopher will bring lots of gold, diamonds and slaves from newly discovered lands. “I want to spread Christianity whole heatedly in newly discovered lands and want to take the message of holy church there. I intend to spend a good chunk of the income from new lands on freeing churches of Jerusalem from Muslims”. His case was accepted & Queen appointed him as her viceroy, an admiral and gave him 3 ships, 100 sailors & 2000 gold coins, hence full military and political support to discover new lands. And within 6 months Amreeka was discovered.

So what this discovery meant? Wealth for Europe & Death for Natives & Blacks.

Read Part 2 Here….