DVB (Digital Video Broadcast) Standards

dvbIntroduction to DVB Standards: A consortium was formed in 1991 by broadcasters, telecom vendors & operators, and regulatory bodies (mainly European) to establish a standard for digital TV / Video Broadcast. This committee is responsible for DVB standards development. It finalizes these standards and then submits them to ETSI (European Telecom Standards Institute) for publication. 

The DVB importance is increasing day by day as traditional analogue TV broadcast will eventually be switched off worldwide (e.g. 2012 in UK).

DVB standards are open standards, are easily adoptable and hence carry lower development costs as well as provide a uniform open platform.

The Key Standards:

DVB-S: TV Broadcast through Satellite Networks,

DVB-C: TV broadcast via Cable Networks

DVB-T: Broadcast via Terrestrial Networks.

DVB-H: For broadcast to Handhelds i.e. for mobile TV. It is compatible with DVB-T (i.e. share the same terrestrial spectrum)

DVB-IPTV: For TV via an IP network e.g. internet.

DVB-SH: It is the Latest, & designed to deliver video, audio and data to handheld devices using S-band frequencies. It is a hybrid satellite/terrestrial system that allows the use of a satellite to achieve coverage of large regions e.g. a whole country. In areas where direct reception of the satellite signal is not possible, terrestrial gap filler can be used to provide coverage. It is designed to use frequencies below 3GHz, typically around 2.2GHz. ETSI standards (TS 102 585 and EN 302 583) cover this.

For more on DVB, look at fact sheets: www.dvb.org/technology/fact_sheets/index.xml

MBMS (Multi Broadcast Multicast Service): Another serious contender in mobile TV delivery is MBMS. It makes use of the existing GSM / UMTS infrastructure, opposed to DVB which uses different radio spectrum hence requiring additional radio spectrum as well as network infrastructure to handle it.

Another issue is DVB is based on terrestrial TV broadcast mechanism which is only downlink, hence it is much complicated to implement signaling or acknowledgements from handheld to transmitter (i.e. uplink). MBMS does not have this issue. MBMS has been adopted by the 3GPP.

Huawei (solution provider), Qualcomm (handheld provider) & Telecom Italia (network operator) announced the completion of Europe’s first MBMS field trial in April 08.

Some other less commonly used technologies include:

ISDB-T: Japan

S-DMB: Japan


The end of Document.

Austria Vienna

Vienna Street
Vienna Street

I went to Austria few days ago (May 2010). It is a beautiful European Union member country in Central Eastern Europe bordering 8 countries. Its official language is German and currency is Euro. Living standards are very high that can easily be compared to Western Europe.


Total population is about 8.2 million, out of which 2.2 million (27%) lives in Vienna, their capital city. About 75% people are Catholic, 4.7% Protestants & 4.2% are Muslims (many from Turkey).


My flight was late in the evening. All hotels in Vienna were fully booked so I was staying in the company hostel. I enquired about directions to the address at airport and took train to city centre followed by metro. As I came out of the final station and looked for the place, I made the shocking discovery that I was at the wrong place. Oh no, it was cold, dark and raining, and I had my luggage in my hands. Luckily there was a taxi nearby which I hired straight away.

Stunning Austria
Stunning Austria

It was 10 pm when I turned up at the apartment I was supposed to stay, only to find out that no one was in the apartment, it was all locked. I got a bit worried; thought may be I am on a wrong address, again. I wandered around in the streets for half an hour, had doner kebab dinner at a kiosk, & asked around for the address.

The address was correct so I returned to the apartment again, only to find it empty, again. I was more than worried now. As I was leaving the building I saw few people entering the building, just coming back from a local pub after merry making (I could smell). Thanks God I whispered to myself. However I was told I am now booked in a hotel nearby. Another taxi ride and I was in my hotel, just after 11 pm. Luckily the hotel was excellent, ciao.

Vienna Palace
Vienna Palace

Vienna is a beautiful historical city. It is locally called Wien. River Danube runs through it making it more attractive. I enjoyed watching its historical buildings, mostly gathered in a small city centre area.

Austria has abundance of natural beauty amid lakes, mountains & parks. It has about 50% area covered with forests. Economy is based on agriculture, industry, minerals, timber & tourism (being the largest).




Austrian Peaks
Austrian Peaks

Economic situation is not good now days. Low income and high living cost is a big issue for general public. Aging population and huge pension expenditure brings huge deficit to the budget, a common problem in nearly all European countries.

Constance Briscoe

God helps those who help themselves!

 Is it true?

Judge Constance Briscoe
Judge Constance Briscoe

UGLY Tale of Courage:

This is the story of an ugly black woman who grew up in dirt poverty, came from absolutely nowhere, with no assistance whatsoever, & having faced adversity at every step in life. Being poor, black, woman & coming from deprived background places you among the most handicapped in British society. But….


She Had a Dream:

She had a dream of becoming a barrister in England. Ms Briscoe got inspired to go into law in her childhood. Ignoring her school careers adviser, who told Ms Briscoe to give up her dreams “for a job in Boots drug store”.


Struggle Struggle & More Struggle:

For her the life was an endless uphill struggle. Her mother repeatedly abused her, verbally and physically by beating her with a shoe, cane, or belt, pinching her breasts & smashing. Her step father assaulted her also.

She took A-Levels at Sacred Heart School in south London. While typical teenagers left it until the last minute before crawling out of their beds for breakfast, Ms Briscoe had already done two hours’ work as a cleaner before arriving at school. Yes, she worked as a cleaner – the most common job in black community.

With no money for studies, she worked for one year to secure a study grant and then joined university, graduating with a 2:2 grade degree. Ms Briscoe then joined Michael Mansfield’s chambers. She had hard time there too. Ms Briscoe was racially abused for being black. It was a long struggle but she succeeded.

Never Give-up – Success will come to You, Eventually:

She fought all hurdles in her way and eventually achieved what she wished for. Constance Briscoe, now 52, from north London, became the first part time black woman judge in England. But her path was only paved with hardships and obstacles. How she succeeded? Ms Briscoe kept her dream, worked hard, and never gave up.

This is True:

Allah helps those who help themselves!

Do you want to succeed? The formula to success is as: (in order of preference):

  1. Have a dream – a big one
  2. Think BIG – ACT BIG, yes, Take Action
  3. Remove the words “No”, Not Possible”, difficult for me, don’t like it, etc… negative blah blah blah……
  4. Help Yourself – Work Hard – there is no shortcut to success – did Muhammad (SAW) or any other person get success easily?
  5. Be Consistent – Never ever Giveup.
  6. Have faith in Allah – He will help you, for sure!

 The End…..

Alexander wanted You Not To Lie – So did Muhammad (SAW)

Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Alexander Solzhenitsyn

Writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn is (though he died in 1989) a Russian writer. He wrote against the oppressive regime hence spent a lot of time in jail & under oppression. He was awarded Noble prize in 1970. Alexander did not attend the ceremony personally in Sweden, only because he knew if he goes out of his country he will be denied re-entry. So he sent in his written speech. In that Alexander said a famous sentence. He said:

“I expect from an ordinary person that he will not lie, nor will he take part in or support anything that is based on lies”.

We always talk about the corruption in our system & society but do we ever look at “ourselves”? The biggest problem is that WE ourselves cheat & lie. We want our society to become good but we do not want ourselves to change. How hypocritical?

As the saying goes:

If two people in the world are corrected, the whole world will be corrected, and that is You & I. 

If we want our nation (i.e. Muslims, but also applies on others) and our society to become good, we must change ourselves first. We must stop lying and we must not support corrupt activities based on it.

Muhammad SAW was asked whether a Muslim can be a coward? He answered, Yes. He was asked if a momin can be miser, he said yes. He was asked again: can a momin be a liar? Muhammad SAW replied   “NO”. (Malik)

(With Apologies to those who are truthful)….

Hajj Suggestions

Further to my Hajj story (Read it here), if you follow few points, it can make your Hajj an easier & comfortable one:

1-     Buy a small & simple book which has photos to explain. Or watch video / audio on the internet to Learn few basic terms such as:

– Types of intention or Neeyaah for hajj which are Tamattou, ifraad, Qiran. Your timing of ihram depends on which neeyah you do. 

– Types of Tawwaf (Qadoom, Ziarah/Ifadah, Umrah, Vida’ah)

4- Learn what is Forbidden while in ihram: Understand the difference of Completely forbidden & Makrooh. Differentiate between myths & facts. If Allah Ta’ala has made a concession, avail it, don’t force hardship upon you. This was the method of Prophet SAW.

5- Make sure you are physically fit to walk for hours, 5 or 6 hrs at a time. Start walking wearing slippers & bare footed few days before going. If you can not walk for long, buy a light folding chair. You can buy everything in Saudi & it is not expensive.

6- Most Toilets are sitting style. And queues are very long. Be prepared before going into haram sharif.

7- Be very very patient, you will be tested to limits. Don’t loose sawaab by getting impatient on small things. Mostly you have to wait for hours at airports, in busses, etc.

8- Don’t buy towel ihram. Imagine wearing 3 meters of towel around you in heat! It is very heavy & after absorbing sweat, becomes heavier. It acts like a blanket in hot weather. Buy normal cotton sheets. These are light & airy.

9- Do hajj within next few years (of 2010) while weather is pleasant. Saudia is a very hot country.

10- You will spend 4 or 5 days in tents in Mina. Some tour operators do not provide mattresses. It is an essential item. Ask before booking. Otherwise buy a light air-filled mattress & /or sleeping bag.

11- Ask around which operator bears good reputation. Make sure you go with someone well reliable who provides all essentials e.g. transport, good hotel near haram sharif, food & most importantly assist you when you need help.

12- Haram sharif gets very crowded near the hajj. If you are with family or elderly, it is better to perform tawwaf on first floor. It is longer but easier. Sa’ee between safa & marwah can also be performed on less crowded floors.

13- Straight after reaching Makkah, understand the routes, surroundings, & gates of haram sharif, and agree a place to meet in case you get separated. All gates are numbered.

14- Wear your ID Tag all the time, keep written addresses & telephone numbers with you all the time. This is vital especially while in Mina because there are thousands of same looking tents there. Once lost, very difficult to get back. Remember your group number.

15- Stoning the Shaitaan: It is an oval shaped long wall. Don’t start hitting stones as soon as you see it. instead, Go to the far end & then hit because there is less rush here. As soon as finished, move away. It is dangerous here due to crowd.

16- Dry cough & bad throat are common. Your fingures carry germs into your body. You can minimize the risk by NOT touching your face (eyes, nose, and mouth) once outside. While doing sajdah, put a small piece of cloth on floor to put your face on it.

17- Keep a small pouch / bag with you & put a copy of duas, your phone, some money, food, water bottle & plastic bag for slippers in it. Keep it as light as possible.

18- Keep slippers with you instead of leaving outside. Otherwise you waste lots of time finding them.

19- Keep dates (khajoor), bananas, chocolate, biscuits etc (as little as possible) with you. There will be occasions when you will not get the chance to eat. Eat these to keep you going.

20- It is almost impossible to get into & out of Haram sharif near hajj. People usually go just before Fajar time. They pray Tahajud & Fajar then come back & take some rest. Then they go back around Zuhar time and then stay there till Isha.

21- Take your own razor, trimmer etc. Avoid the barber there if possible. Hygiene is quite poor. Imagine 3 million heads shaven 3 or 4 times.

22- Don’t break the rules. Follow the system & procedures and obey the security people. It will make your & other hajj safe & easy. The system is slow but works.

23- To make intention for umrah, you will need to go to Masjid Aisha. It is about 30 mins drive from Haram sharif. Buses go there, or you can share a taxi. Coming back is much easier. There are a lot of non-stop buses.

24- While spending night in open in Muzdalafa, it gets cold in the night. Be prepared & keep a light blanket & light rubber sheet to put on rough floor. Also there are very few toilets so go very very early in the morning. You may have to stand in the queue for an hour or more.

25- No matter what happens, stay calm & cool. Enjoy your time there. After all you are getting sawab for each & everything you do. Just stay there is a swab. Dont lose it by losing temper if others are being silly.

26- If anyone (e.g. a driver or a shop keeper) troubles you, simply contact the security person. Believe me they are very helpful.

May Allah Ta’ala make your journey for Hajj a blessed & enjoyable.